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X-radiation composed of X-rays is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. X-rays with high photon energies above 5—10 бонус код в казино х рей, below 0. The term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself.

Since the wavelengths of hard X-rays are similar to the size of atoms they are also useful for determining crystal structures by X-ray crystallography.

There is no consensus for a definition бонус код в казино х рей between X-rays and gamma rays. One common practice is to distinguish between the two types of radiation based on their source: X-rays are emitted бонус код в казино х рей electronswhile gamma rays are emitted by the atomic nucleus. Some measurement techniques do not distinguish between detected wavelengths. However, these two definitions often coincide since the electromagnetic radiation emitted by X-ray tubes generally has a longer wavelength and lower photon energy than the radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei.

Thus, gamma-rays generated for medical and industrial uses, for example radiotherapyin the ranges of 6—20 MeVcan in this context also be referred to as X-rays. X-ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bonds. This makes it a type of ionizing radiationand therefore harmful to living tissue. A very high radiation dose over a short period of time causes radiation sicknesswhile lower doses can give an increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. In medical вход азартмания средств вывод казино ios this increased cancer risk is generally greatly outweighed by the benefits of the examination.

The ionizing capability of X-rays can be utilized in cancer treatment to kill malignant cells using radiation therapy. It is also used for material characterization using X-ray spectroscopy.

Hard X-rays can traverse relatively thick objects without being much absorbed or scattered. For this reason, X-rays are widely used to image the inside of visually opaque objects. The most often seen applications are in medical radiography and airport security scanners, but similar techniques are also important in industry e. The penetration depth varies with several orders of magnitude over the X-ray spectrum. This allows the photon energy to be adjusted the application so as to give sufficient transmission through the object and at the same time good contrast in the image.

X-rays have much shorter wavelengths than visible light, which makes it possible to probe structures much smaller than can be seen using a normal microscope. This property is used in X-ray microscopy to acquire high resolution images, and also in X-ray crystallography to determine the positions of atoms in crystals.

X-rays interact with matter in three main ways, through photoabsorptionCompton scatteringand Rayleigh scattering. The strength of these interactions depends on the energy of the X-rays and the elemental composition of the material, but not much on chemical properties, since the X-ray photon energy is much higher than chemical binding energies. Photoabsorption or photoelectric absorption is the dominant interaction mechanism in the soft X-ray regime and for the lower hard X-ray energies.

At higher energies, Compton visit web page dominates. However, the general trend of high absorption coefficients and thus short penetration depths for low photon energies and high atomic numbers is very strong.

For soft tissue, photoabsorption dominates up to about 26 keV photon energy where Compton scattering takes over. For higher atomic number substances this limit is higher. A photoabsorbed photon transfers all its energy to the electron with which it interacts, thus ionizing the atom to which the electron бонус код в казино х рей bound and producing a photoelectron that is likely to ionize more atoms in its path. An outer electron will fill the vacant electron position click produce either a characteristic photon [ clarification needed ] or an Auger electron.

These effects can be used for elemental detection through X-ray spectroscopy or Auger electron spectroscopy. Compton scattering is the predominant interaction between X-rays and soft tissue in medical imaging. Part of the energy of the photon is transferred to the scattering electron, бонус код в казино х рей ionizing the atom and increasing the wavelength of the X-ray.

The scattered photon can go in any direction, but a direction similar to the original direction is more likely, especially for high-energy X-rays. The probability for different scattering angles are described by the Klein—Nishina formula.

The transferred energy can бонус код в казино х рей directly obtained from the scattering angle from the conservation of energy and momentum. Rayleigh scattering is the dominant elastic scattering mechanism in the X-ray regime. Whenever charged particles electrons or ions of sufficient energy hit a material, X-rays are produced.

X-rays can be generated by an X-ray tubea vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. The high velocity electrons collide with a metal target, the anodecreating the X-rays. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with бонус код в казино х рей often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.

When the electrons hit the target, X-rays are created by two different atomic processes:. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. The voltages used in бонус код в казино х рей X-ray tubes click the following article from roughly 20 kV to kV and thus the highest energies of the X-ray photons range from roughly 20 keV to keV.

Both of these X-ray бонус код в казино х рей processes are inefficient, with a production efficiency of only about one percent, and thus most of the electric power consumed by the tube is released as waste heat. When producing a usable flux of X-rays, the X-ray tube must be designed to dissipate the excess heat. Short nanosecond bursts of X-rays peaking at keV in energy may be reliably produced by peeling pressure-sensitive adhesive tape from its backing in a moderate vacuum.

This is likely to be the result of recombination of electrical charges produced by triboelectric charging. The intensity of X-ray triboluminescence is sufficient for it to be used as a source for X-ray imaging.

A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiationwhich is generated by particle accelerators.

Its unique features are X-ray outputs many orders of magnitude greater than those of X-ray tubes, wide X-ray spectra, excellent collimationand linear polarization. X-rays can also be produced by fast protons or other positive ions.

The proton-induced X-ray emission or particle-induced X-ray emission is widely used as an analytical procedure.

X-ray detectors vary in shape and function depending on their purpose. Imaging detectors such as those used for radiography were originally based on photographic plates and later photographic filmbut are now mostly replaced by various digital detector types such as image plates and flat panel detectors. For radiation protection direct exposure hazard is often evaluated using ionization chamberswhile dosimeters are used to measure the radiation dose a person has been exposed to.

X-ray spectra can be measured either by energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive spectrometers. The first medical use was less than a month after his paper on the subject. Projectional radiography is the practice of producing two-dimensional images using x-ray radiation. Bones contain much calciumwhich due to its relatively high atomic number absorbs x-rays efficiently. This reduces the amount of X-rays reaching the detector in the shadow of the bones, making them clearly visible on the radiograph.

The lungs and trapped gas also show up clearly because of lower absorption compared to tissue, бонус код в казино х рей differences between tissue types are harder to see.

Projectional radiographs are useful in the бонус код в казино х рей of pathology of the skeletal system as well as for detecting some disease processes BWS бонусы на депозит от покер старс Abend soft tissue. Some notable examples are the very common chest X-raywhich can be used to identify lung diseases such as pneumonialung canceror pulmonary edemaand the abdominal x-raywhich can detect bowel or intestinal obstructionfree air from visceral perforations and free fluid in ascites.

X-rays may also be used to detect pathology such as gallstones which are rarely radiopaque or kidney stones which are often but read more always visible. Traditional plain X-rays are less useful in the imaging of soft tissues such as the brain or muscle. Dental radiography is commonly used in the diagnoses of common oral problems, such as cavities.

In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy soft X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing read more radiation dose without contributing to the image.

Hence, a thin metal бонус код в казино х рей, often of aluminiumcalled an X-ray filteris usually placed over the window of the X-ray tube, absorbing the low energy part in the spectrum. This is called hardening the beam since it shifts the center of the spectrum towards higher energy or harder x-rays. To generate an image of the cardiovascular systemincluding the arteries and veins бонус код в казино х рей an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest.

A second image is then taken of the same region after an iodinated contrast agent has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.

The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine whether there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. Computed tomography CT scanning is a medical imaging modality where tomographic images or slices of specific areas of the body are obtained from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken in different directions.

Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used by physicians or radiation therapists to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of den играться в игровые автоматы на виртуальные средства anticoagulant fluoroscope.

In its simplest form, a fluoroscope consists of an X-ray source and a fluorescent screen, between which a patient is placed.

However, modern fluoroscopes couple the screen бонус код в казино х рей an X-ray image intensifier and CCD video camera allowing the images to be recorded and played on a monitor. This method may use a contrast material. Examples include cardiac catheterization to examine for coronary artery blockages and barium swallow to examine for esophageal disorders.

The use of X-rays bedeutet форум онлайн казино фаворитные Sie a treatment is known as radiation therapy and is largely used for the management including palliation of cancer ; it requires higher radiation doses than those received for imaging alone.

X-rays beams are used for treating skin cancers using lower energy x-ray beams while higher energy beams are used for treating cancers within the body such as brain, lung, prostate, and breast. Diagnostic X-rays primarily from CT scans due to the large dose used increase the risk of developmental problems and cancer in those exposed.

Experimental and epidemiological data currently do not support the proposition that there is a threshold dose of radiation below which there is no increased risk of cancer. To place the increased risk in perspective, a plain chest X-ray will expose a person to the same amount from background radiation that people are exposed to depending upon location every day over 10 days, while exposure from a dental X-ray is approximately equivalent to 1 day of environmental background radiation.

An abdominal or chest CT would be the equivalent to 2—3 years of background radiation to the whole body, or 4—5 years to the abdomen or chest, increasing the lifetime cancer risk between 1 per 1, to 1 per 10, The risk of radiation is greater to a fetus, so in pregnant patients, the benefits бонус код в казино х рей the investigation X-ray should be balanced with the potential hazards to the fetus. Medical X-rays are a significant source of man-made radiation exposure. Byhowever, medical procedures in the United States were contributing much more ionizing radiation than was the case in the early s.

Inmedical exposure constituted nearly half of the total radiation exposure of the U. The increase is traceable to the growth in the use of medical imaging procedures, in particular computed tomography CTand to the growth in the use of nuclear medicine. Dosage due to dental X-rays varies significantly depending on the procedure and the technology film or digital.

Depending on the procedure and the technology, a single dental X-ray of a human results in an exposure of 0. A full mouth series may therefore result in an exposure of up to 6 digital to 18 film mrem, for a yearly average of up to 40 mrem. X-rays were found emanating from Crookes tubesexperimental discharge tubes invented aroundby scientists investigating the cathode raysthat is energetic electron beams, that were first created in the tubes.

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